Tag: Rails

Karafka framework 1.2.0 Release Notes (Ruby + Kafka)

Note: These release notes cover only the major changes. To learn about various bug fixes and changes, please refer to the change logs or check out the list of commits in the main Karafka repository on GitHub.

Note: 1.2 release is the last release that will require ActiveSupport to work.

Code quality

I will start with the same thing as with 1.1. We're constantly working on having a better and easier code base. Despite many changes to our code-base stack, we were able to maintain a pretty decent offenses distribution and trends.

It's worth pointing out, that we're now using more extensively many components of the Dry-Rb ecosystem and we love it!


This release brings significant performance improvements allowing you to consume around 40-50k messages per second per single topic. We could do a bit more (around 5-10%) by using symbols as defaults for metadata params key names, but this would bring up a lot of complexity and confusion since JSON parsing returns string keys. It would also introduce some problematic incompatibilities when using additional backend engines that serialize the whole params_batch and deserialize it back.

Karafka is a complex piece of software and benchmarking it can be tricky. There are many use-cases that need to be considered. Some of them single threaded, some of them multi-threaded, some with a non-parsed data rejections and some requiring multiple-thread interactions. That's why it is really hard to design a single benchmark that will be able to compare multiple Kafka + Ruby frameworks in a fair way.

We've decided not to go that way, but rather compare new releases with the previous once. Here are the results of running the same logic with 1.1 and 1.2 multiple times (the more the better):

For some edge cases, Karafka 1.2 can be up to 3x faster than 1.1.

If you are looking for some cross-framework benchmark results, they are available here.


Controllers are now Consumers

Initial versions of Karafka were built with an idea, that we could ignore the transportation layer when working with data. Regardless whether it was an HTTP request, Kafka message or anything else, as long as the data is in a compatible format, we should not have to adapt our business logic to it.

That was the primary reason, why prior to Karafka 1.2 you would put logic in controllers that inherited from ApplicationController or KarafkaController. And this was a mistake.

More and more companies use Karafka within a typical Ruby on Rails stack in which controllers are meant to be Rails controllers. Less experienced developers that encounter Karafka controllers within Rails app/controllers namespace would often end up trying to use some Rails controllers API specific magic without realizing that they're within Karafka controller scope. To eliminate this problem and to match Kafka naming conventions, the processing units that are responsible for feeding you with Kafka data are being renamed to Consumers and from now on, there are no controllers in the Karafka ecosystem.

# Within app/consumers
class UsersCreatedConsumer < ApplicationConsumer
  def consume
    params_batch.each { |params| User.create!(params['user']) }

New instrumentation engine using Dry-Monitor

Note: Dry-Monitor usage requires a separate article. Here's just a brief summary of what we did with it.

Old Karafka monitor was too magical. It would auto-detect the context in which it is invoked, automatically building notification scopes and doing a lot of other things. This was really cool but it was:

  • Slow
  • Hard to maintain
  • Bug sensitive
  • Code change sensitive
  • Not isolated from the rest of the system
  • Hard to use with custom tools like NewRelic or Airbrake
  • Limited when it comes to instrumenting with multiple tools at the same time
  • Too custom to be easily replaced

We are proud to announce, that from now on, Dry-Monitor is the instrumentation backbone of the whole Karafka ecosystem. Here's a simple example of what you can achieve using it:

Karafka.monitor.subscribe 'params.params.parse.error' do |event|
  puts "Oh no! An error: #{event[:error]} occurred!"

and to be honest, possibilities are endless. From simple logging, through in-production performance monitoring up to multi-target complex instrumentation. Please refer to the Monitoring and logging section of Karafka Wiki for more details.

Dynamic Karafka::Params::Params parent class

Karafka is designed to handle a lot of messages. Each incoming message is wrapper with a lazy evaluated hash-like object. Prior to 1.2, each params object was built based on ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess. Truth be told, it is not the fastest library ever (benchmark details here), especially when compared to a PORO Hash:

Common Hash#[] access:  8306261.5 i/s
Common Hash#fetch access:  6053147.2 i/s - 1.37x slower
HashWithIndifferentAccess #[] String:  3803546.0 i/s - 2.18x slower
HashWithIndifferentAccess#fetch String:  1993671.6 i/s - 4.17x slower
HashWithIndifferentAccess#fetch Symbol:  1932004.0 i/s - 4.30x slower
HashWithIndifferentAccess #[] Symbol:  1422367.3 i/s - 5.84x slower
Hash#with_indifferent_access #[] String:   470876.8 i/s - 17.64x slower
Hash#with_indifferent_access #fetch String:   414701.6 i/s - 20.03x slower
Hash#with_indifferent_access #fetch Symbol:   410033.7 i/s - 20.26x slower
Hash#with_indifferent_access #[] Symbol: 381347.2 i/s - 21.78x slower

Now imagine that in some cases, we create 50 0000 objects like that per second. This had to have a serious impact on the framework performance. As always, there needs to be a trade-off. Should we go with a Hash in the name of performance or should we use HashWithIndifferentAccess for the sake of the "simplicity"? We will let you choose whatever you find more suitable.

For that reason, we've provided a config params_base_class setting that you can use to set up the base params class from which Karafka::Params::Params will inherit. By default, it is a plain Hash.

require 'active_support/hash_with_indifferent_access'

class App < Karafka::App
  setup do |config|
    # Other settings...
    # config.params_base_class = Hash
    config.params_base_class = HashWithIndifferentAccess

Keep in mind, that you can use other base classes like for example concurrent hash for your advantage. The only requirement is that it needs to have the same API as a Ruby Hash.

System callbacks reorganization with multiple callbacks support

Note: This will be unified with a one set of events that you will be able to hook up to in 1.3 using Dry-Events.

Due to the fact, that some of the things happen in Karafka outside of consumers scope, there are two types of callbacks available:

- Lifecycle callbacks - callbacks that are triggered during various moments in the Karafka framework lifecycle. They can be used to configure additional software dependent on Karafka settings or to do one-time stuff that needs to happen before consumers are created.
- Consumer callbacks - callbacks that are triggered during various stages of messages flow

You can read more about them and how to use them in the Callbacks wiki section.

before_fetch_loop configuration block for early client usage (#seek, etc)

This new callback will be executed once per each consumer group per process before we start receiving messages. This is a great place if you need to use Kafka's #seek functionality to reprocess already fetched messages again.

Note: Keep in mind, that this is a per process configuration (not per consumer) so you need to check if a provided consumer_group (if you use multiple) is the one you want to seek against.

class App < Karafka::App
  # Setup and other things...

  # Moves the offset back to 100 message, so we can reprocess messages again
  # @note If you use multiple consumers group, make sure you execute #seek on a client of
  #   a proper consumer group not on all of them
  before_fetch_loop do |consumer_group, client|
    topic = 'my_topic'
    partition = 0
    offset = 100

    if consumer_group.topics.map(&:name).include?(topic)
      client.seek(topic, partition, offset)

Rewritten NewRelic client

Thanks to NewRelic kindness, we were able to rewrite the whole listener that now can collect various information about the Karafka data flow. It is super easy to use and extend. You can find it in the Monitoring and Logging wiki section.

Key and/or partition key support for responders

You can now provide key and/or partition_key when using responders:

module Users
  class CreatedResponder < KarafkaResponder
    topic :users_created

    def respond(user)
      respond_to :users_created, user, key: user.id

Alias for client#mark_as_consumed on a consumer level

Simple yet powerful. For max performance, you may use manual offset commit management. If you do that, you can now use the #mark_as_consumed directly, without having to refer to the #client object.

class UsersCreatedConsumer < ApplicationConsumer
  def consume
    params_batch.each { |params| User.create!(params['user']) }
    mark_as_consumed params_batch.last

Incompatibilities and breaking changes

Controllers are now Consumers

Please refer to the features section with this one. It is both a feature and a breaking change at the same time.

after_fetched renamed to after_fetch to normalize the naming convention

class ExamplesConsumer < Karafka::BaseConsumer
  include Karafka::Consumers::Callbacks

  after_fetched do
    # Some logic here

  def consume
    # some logic here

is now:

class ExamplesConsumer < Karafka::BaseConsumer
  include Karafka::Consumers::Callbacks

  after_fetch do
    # Some logic here

  def consume
    # some logic here

received_at renamed to receive_time to follow ruby-kafka and WaterDrop conventions

received_at params key is now receive_time. This means that two timestamp values are available for each params object:

  • receive_time - the moment message was received by our Karafka process
  • create_time - the moment our message was created in the producer

Hash is now the default params base class in favor of ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess

Long story short: performance and fewer dependencies. You can still use it though:

require 'active_support/hash_with_indifferent_access'

class App < Karafka::App
  setup do |config|
    # Other settings...
    config.params_base_class = HashWithIndifferentAccess

All metadata keys are strings by default

Since now the default params class is a Hash, we had to pick either symbols or strings as key names for all the metadata attributes. We've decided to go with strings as they are more serialization friendly and cooperate with various backends used with Karafka.

Note: If you use HashWithIndifferentAccess, nothing really changes for you.

def consume
  params_batch.first.keys #=> ["parser", "partition", "offset", "key", "create_time", ...]

JSON parsing defaults now to string keys

Since there is no indifferent access by default, when lazy parsing the JSON Kafka data, it will default to string keys that will be merged to the params object. If you're not planning to use the HashWithIndifferentAccess make sure that your code-base is ready for this change.

Karafka 1.1:

class UsersCreatedConsumer < ApplicationConsumer
  def consume
    # Assuming user data is in the 'user' json scope
    params_batch.each do |params| params[:user] #=> { name: 'Maciek' }
      params['user'] #=> { name: 'Maciek' }
      params['receive_time'] #=> 2018-02-27 18:53:31 +0100

Karafka 1.2:

class UsersCreatedConsumer < ApplicationConsumer
  def consume
    # Assuming user data is in the 'user' json scope
    params_batch.each do |params| params[:user] #=> nil
      params['user'] #=> { name: 'Maciek' }
      # Note, that system keys are strings as well
      params['receive_time'] #=> 2018-02-27 18:53:31 +0100

Configurators removed in favor of the after_init block configuration

What were configurators? Let me quote 1.1 wiki on that one:

For additional setup and/or configuration tasks you can create custom configurators. Similar to Rails these are added to a config/initializers directory and run after app initialization.

Due to a changed lifecycle of Karafka process, more things are being built dynamically upon boot. This means that in order to run initializers in a good way, we would have to control the load order in a more granular way. That's why this functionality has been replaced with an after_init callback declaration:

class App < Karafka::App
  # Setup and other things...

  # Once everything is loaded and done, assign Karafka app logger as a Sidekiq logger
  # @note This example does not use config details, but you can use all the config values
  #   to setup your external components
  after_init do |_config|
    Sidekiq::Logging.logger = Karafka::App.logger

Note: you can have as many callbacks of any type as you want to. They also can be objects as long as the respond to a #call method.

Karafka ecosystem gems versioning convention

Karafka is combined from several independent libraries. The most important are:

  • Karafka - The main gem that is used to build Karafka applications that consume messages
  • WaterDrop - WaterDrop is a standalone Karafka component library for generating Kafka messages
  • Capistrano-Karafka - Integration for deployment using Capistrano
  • Karafka Sidekiq Backend - an optional proxy that will pass messages received from Karafka into Sidekiq jobs

Some Karafka users had problems using mismatched versions of those gems. From now on, they all will be released in sync up to the second version point. It means that if you decide to use Karafka 1.2 with other ecosystem libraries, you should match them to 1.2.* as well.

Note: This should be resolved automatically as we locked all the proper versions within gemspec, but still worth mentioning.


Our Wiki has been updated accordingly to the 1.2 status. You probably may want to look at the rewritten Monitoring and logging section and the new Testing guide that illustrates how you can test various Karafka ecosystem components.

Upgrade guide

Controllers are now Consumers

Following steps are required to move from controllers:

  • 1. Create app/consumers directory
  • 2. Rename ApplicationController (or KarafkaController) to ApplicationConsumer / KarafkaConsumer
  • 3. Move the ApplicationController and all Karafka controllers to app/consumers
  • 4. Rename files and classes by replacing "Controller" with "Consumer"
  • 5. If you use callbacks, don't forget about Karafka::Consumers::Callbacks
  • 6. Do exactly the same with your specs/tests
  • 7. Replace the controller consumers groups definition in the karafka.rb file with consumer
  • 8. Rename all the "Controller" with "Consumer" in the karafka.rb file

Karafka, WaterDrop and friends version match

This should be resolved automatically but if you prefer, you can always lock all the Karafka ecosystem gems in your gemfile:

gem 'karafka', '~> 1.2'
gem 'karafka-sidekiq-backend', '~> 1.2'
gem 'capistrano-karafka', '~> 1.2'

Ruby on Rails HashWithIndifferentAccess params compatibility mode

If you still want to use HashWithIndifferentAccess, feel free to:

require 'active_support/hash_with_indifferent_access'
class App < Karafka::App
  setup do |config|
    # Other settings...
    # config.params_base_class = Hash
    config.params_base_class = HashWithIndifferentAccess

Default monitor and logger update

Please refer to the Monitoring and logging Wiki section for details of the way both of those things work now. If you used the default monitoring and logging without any customization, all you need to do is add this to your karafka.rb file after the setup part:


NewRelic client update

If you use our NewRelic example client, please take a look at the new one and upgrade accordingly.

Callbacks rename

class ExamplesConsumer < Karafka::BaseConsumer
  include Karafka::Consumers::Callbacks
  # Rename this
  after_fetched do
    # Some logic here

  # To this
  after_fetch do
    # Some logic here

Karafka params received_at renamed to receive_time

Again, just a name change: if you use 'received_at' params timestamp, you'll enjoy it under the 'receive_time' key.

Getting started with Karafka

If you want to get started with Kafka and Karafka as fast as possible, then the best idea is to just clone our example repository:

git clone https://github.com/karafka/karafka-example-app ./example_app

then, just bundle install all the dependencies:

cd ./example_app
bundle install

and follow the instructions from the example app Wiki.

Kafka on Rails: Using Kafka with Ruby on Rails – Part 1 – Kafka basics and its advantages

  1. Kafka on Rails: Using Kafka with Ruby on Rails – Part 1 – Kafka basics and its advantages
  2. Kafka on Rails: Using Kafka with Ruby on Rails - Part 2 - Getting started with Ruby and Kafka


In this series of articles, I will try to provide you with an explanation on why you should invest your time in learning Kafka and the Karafka framework and how it can reshape the way you design and develop your Ruby applications. I will also try to answer some of the most common questions regarding those two and give you some real usage examples on how you can benefit fast from adding them to your technological stack.

What is Kafka?

Let me quote Wiki on that one:

Apache Kafka is an open-source stream processing platform developed by the Apache Software Foundation written in Scala and Java. The project aims to provide a unified, high-throughput, low-latency platform for handling real-time data feeds.

Now let's translate it into some general concepts (copied from here):

  1. It lets you publish and subscribe to streams of records. In this respect, it is similar to a message queue or enterprise messaging system.
  2. It lets you store streams of records in a fault-tolerant way.
  3. It lets you process streams of records as they occur.
  4. It lets you build real-time data pipeline based applications that reliably get data between systems and/or applications.
  5. It lets you build real-time streaming applications that transform and react to a stream of data and/or events.
  6. It allows you to simplify Domain Driver Design implementation within both new and existing applications and allows you to do this more technology agnostic.

Why should I be interested in it?

Because it allows you to expand. And I don't only mean that you will get much better performance with it and that you will be able to process more and faster.

What I really mean, is that once you understand concepts behind it, you will get a whole new set of possibilities to work with your data. You will expand your horizons and re-shift the way you design your code.

Systems that we build are data-driven and by having more ways of working with it, we get a totally new set of tools and solutions which we can use to make our work better and more efficient.

I keep saying, that the Ruby (and Rails in particular) community lacks architects and good architecture for post-MVP systems. One of the reasons why it is the way it is, is because we're to bound to the Request-Response way of thinking. Once you learn, that things can be done in a different way, it will impact your way of working with any technology you use, including Ruby on Rails.

Basic Kafka terminology

There are many general Kafka introduction articles, including the official one. Here, I will describe the most important parts of Kafka ecosystem, so you can start working with it as fast as possible.

Note: the description mentioned below might not be 100% accurate, but it should be enough for you to grasp the basics and keep you going.

Note: You can find more details about Kafka in a great Kafka in a Nutshell article.

General publish-subscribe messaging system concept

A messaging system lets you send messages between processes, applications, and servers. Applications should be able to connect to a system like that and transfer messages both ways.

Note: Publisher (one that sends a message) can be a receiver / subscriber at the same time.

Illustration are taken from here.

Kafka brokers

Kafka is a distributed system that runs in a cluster. Each node in the cluster is called a Kafka broker. Broker is a single Kafka process that operates in a cluster.

Kafka topics with partitions

Kafka topic is just a named stream of records. It is a bit similar to Sidekiq or RabbiMQ queue concept. In general, it is a namespace where you are going to store messages that are similar to each other in terms of your business logic.

Everything is organized around topics and most Kafka guarantees are either for a topic or a topic partition. You send and receive messages from topics. Topics in Kafka are always multi-subscriber in nature; that is, a topic can have zero, one, or many consumers that subscribe to the data written to it.

Each Kafka topic is always divided in partitions. Even if you have a single partition, it is still there. Each partition is an ordered, immutable sequence of records that is continually appended to a structured commit log. The records in the partitions are each assigned a sequential id number called the offset.

You can fetch data from multiple partitions with a single consumer, but you need to be aware that their guaranteed delivery order will be maintained within data set from a single partition. It means, that you should not rely on a multi-partition message order within your business logic.

Kafka producers

Kafka producer is an application or a process that sends messages to Kafka.

Kafka consumers and consumer groups

Kafka consumer is an application that reads messages from Kafka.

Consumer can start reading messages from any offset. It means, that you can build systems that will start from the beginning of a topic and replay all the events/messages that Kafka contains or that will start from the current position and only work with new messages that are coming in.

Most of the time, for the first consumer run, you will pick one of those and later on you will always consume from the last offset you worked with before shutting down the consumer, but it is still good to know, that you can always start from any offset you want. This allows consumers to join the cluster at any point in time.

Consumers can be organized in groups. Consumer group includes consumers that subscribe to the same topics. Each consumer in a group will be assigned by Kafka with a set of partitions to work with. This approach allows you to greatly scale as you can increase number of partitions and spin up more consumers within the same consumer group. Kafka guarantees that a message is only read by a single consumer in the group.

You can have more consumers than partitions, but they won't actively participate in the consumption process. They will start performing work in the case of crashes or other failures of other consumers.

It's worth pointing out, that Kafka never pushes messages to the consumers on its own. It's the consumer that asks for messages when it is ready to handle them. This approach is super flexible, as it allows you to temporarily shut down the consumer and after it is back, it will catch up with all the messages that were not yet processed. A really great feature for SOA-based microservices that won't loose any data. In the worst case scenario, they will just process them a bit later.

What Kafka can do for me and my Ruby on Rails applications?

Note: We will explore all those benefits in details in next parts of this series. Here's just a quick summary.

A lot. And it really depends on your perspective and your role in the organization. Having Kafka as your messages backbone for Ruby and Rails systems will bring you benefits in many places.


Most of the Ruby on Rails systems are developed with objects in mind. This is true for both the client end-to-end requests as well as for the Sidekiq background jobs.

Having to refresh or recalculate some things in the system upon a change that is frequent during spikes that occur from time to time? Redesigning this part of the system and being able to fetch messages in batches can lower the need of constant recalculation significantly.

The Kafka-based systems also scale really, really well and due to the multi-consumer subscription model, you can optimize and scale separate parts of the system independently.


This is by far the biggest advantage you will get in your Ruby and Rails systems when you add Kafka to them. You will be able to design, build and test independent components that can do things outside of a typical Rails "HTTP like" processing scope.

You won't have to worry about (almost) anything else except your bounded context and your business domain. Due to the way Kafka works, sometimes you will be even forced to use tools and solutions that aren't from the "Rails way".

Have you ever been able to build a proof of concept application that could hook up in real time to staging or production without introducing side-effects? Were you able to run it from your local machine and see how things work? With Kafka, it can be super easy to achieve that.

Note: Don't get me wrong, it's not Kafka itself in your stack, that will auto-magically change everything. It's you having it and understanding what you can achieve with it who will trigger and lead the change. Kafka will just allow you to do those things easily and fast.

Deployment process

Being able to re-consume and re-process messages allows you to shutdown certain parts of the system without affecting others. Since the Kafka messages are not being pushed, they don't disappear, if not consumed immediately. With a bit of good architecture, you can deploy, perform maintenance and do other things while the system is running without users knowing about that.

Development performance

The bigger system gets, the more often developers step on each other's toes. Development costs and developers frustration will grow exponentially when they:

  • change the same things simultaneously,
  • have to remember about edge cases out of our current business domain scope,
  • have to deal with additional callback actions and/or non explicit processes.

Kafka allows you to easily use DDD to build systems that are event-based and that can be managed and developed with much smaller overhead than a typical Ruby on Rails MVC, callback-based system.

Freedom of choice

Ruby on Rails can be a burden from time to time. Plain Ruby can do really well. ActiveRecord can be replaced with ROM and Dry-Validation, bringing you many benefits. However, it can be really hard to introduce new concepts in a huge legacy system. If you have Kafka and Karafka, you can spin up a new experimental applications that will perform some business within a bounded context and won't do any harm to the existing logic and/or data.

Tired of Ruby in general? Replace a single Kafka based component with a different one in a different technology that might better suit your needs.

I already have a message bus (Redis + Sidekiq)

Kafka is not a message bus. It is a distributed streaming platform.

It's not entirely accurate to compare them as they are not the same. There are many business cases that could be solved with any of those. However, there are some significant differences,when looking from the Sidekiq perspective, that it's good to know and understand:

  1. Kafka does not handle reentrancy - in case of a message processing failure, it is up to you to decide to do with it. It won't be pushed back and retried automatically,
  2. Kafka does not support pushing the same message into a queue again (you can push it back but it will be a new message in the partition). Messages are immutable and once placed in Kafka, they cannot be changed,
  3. Sidekiq does not support  message broadcasting and is more command-oriented than event-oriented (do-this vs did-this), especially within Ruby on Rails and Sidekiq scope,
  4. Sidekiq does not support batch consuming,
  5. Kafka can keep events much (configurably) longer due to persistence,
  6. Kafka events can be consumed multiple times by multiple consumer groups,
  7. Kafka can be the only message bus for any publish-subscribe flows,
  8. Sidekiq message that got consumed is being removed from the queue, which means that you cannot re-consume it if needed.

Summary - Karafka as a Ruby Kafka backbone

All this introduction has had one goal: to make you familiar with the basic concepts and advantages of using Kafka with your new and existing Ruby and Rails based systems.

In the next parts of this series, we will explore Karafka, a framework used to simplify Apache Kafka based Ruby applications development.

We will start from building small applications that use Karafka as an internal and external message backbone, and then we'll move to integrating Karafka with existing monoliths and using it to decompose and re-design your existing code base.

Somewhere down the road, in this series, I will also introduce other "non-Rails" stack tools including Traiblazer, Dry-Validation, ROM and few others, to give you a wider perspective on how much you can benefit, when combining proper tools altogether.

Karafka provides you with a lot of possibilities and you will see for yourself, that when boosted with other great tools, your code quality, architecture, performance and the way you work can jump to a totally different level.

Stay tuned :-)

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